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Symptoms, Causes & Treatment


Menopause affects women when their ovaries stop producing enough oestrogen that eggs are no longer released from the ovaries, causing menstrual periods to stop. Prior to menopause, you will have had symptoms of perimenopause for a few months or years leading to menopause.

Treatments for Menopause

Menopause is a natural condition signalling a change in the woman’s reproductive system as hormone levels change. As oestrogen levels decline, women’s ovaries stop releasing eggs to be fertilised each month until ovulation and menstruation stops completely and women can no longer get pregnant. Menopause symptoms begin to appear when women reach the ages of 45-55 as menstrual periods become irregular and decline. As oestrogen declines, women experience perimenopause for an average of four years before menstruation stops completely when menopause is diagnosed. Early menopause can be caused by medical treatments like hysterectomy and breast cancer treatment such as Tamoxifen.

During this time, months or years leading up to menopause, you will notice physical and mental changes as your hormone levels change. Not only is oestrogen vital for fertility, but it also affects the brain, skin, bones, liver and heart.

Psychological Symptoms:

Changes in female hormone levels affect mental health. Oestrogen affects the brain by regulating the part of the brain connected that produces feel-good chemicals, during menopause, with less oestrogen you may experience depression or anxiety. Oestrogen also helps the brain to manage body temperature and when levels of this hormone are low, you can experience hot flashes and night sweats.

Physical symptoms like night sweats can interrupt sleep quality which can affect mood and anxiety. Physical symptoms overall can be uncomfortable and affect confidence and intimate relationships which can further take a toll on mental health during perimenopause and menopause.

Brain fog, forgetfulness and difficulty focusing and thinking are also commonly experienced, as oestrogen levels dropping disturbs activity in the hippocampus, the memory processing part of the brain. Declining oestrogen levels can also disturb pre-existing depression and anxiety making those symptoms more prominent causing further psychological discomfort.

Physical Symptoms:

The physical effects of menopause can be felt as oestrogen levels decline. You may notice your periods become irregular, menstrual periods can start to have longer cycles with delayed frequency or periods can be closer together, and you may notice a lighter or heavier flow.

Oestrogen is vital for the natural lubrication of the vagina and as levels decline you may experience vaginal dryness, vaginal skin thinning and discomfort/inflammation. You may also experience increased urinary tract infections (UTI’s), stress incontinence, weight changes as metabolism begins to slow down and joint discomfort.

Skin quality is influenced by oestrogen by maintaining collagen production and thickness to maintain a youthful appearance. As oestrogen levels decline, the skin changes and becomes more dry, thin and skin laxity occurs which accelerates the appearance of ageing.

Oestrogen is vital for bone health. When this hormone declines, bones become weaker and the risk of bone loss and osteoporosis increases. Oestrogen is also important for managing cholesterol in the liver to protect the heart. After menopause, cardiovascular problems become more of a risk if health is not managed optimally.

Our team of GP’s specialise in women’s health and can support you as you experience the changes of menopause. Our doctors at Bodyvie can offer you treatment tailored to your needs to restore hormone balance so you can regain a sense of wellbeing.

SYMPTOMS of Menopause

Common symptoms of menopause include:

  • vaginal dryness/discomfort
  • stress urinary incontinence
  • mood swings
  • sleep disorders
  • anxiety
  • skin laxity
  • weight gain
  • hot flashes
  • night sweats
  • painful intercourse
  • decreased sexual desire

CAUSES of Menopause

  • Oestrogen & progesterone levels decline
  • Ageing
  • Medical intervention such as hysterectomy
  • Cancer treatment such as tamoxifen

Prevention of Menopause

Menopause cannot be prevented but its symptoms can be lessened with a healthy lifestyle of a balanced diet, regular exercise, limited alcohol consumption, adequate calcium intake and no smoking.

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